Focus on Form or Focus on FormS: Which Method Is More Effective?

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Xianchun Gu


Norris and Ortega (2000) examined the effectiveness of L2 instruction by conducting a metaanalysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Their study provided some positive evidence for the superiority of explicit instruction over implicit instruction and evidence for the durability of L2 instruction. However, it also indicated that, “a focus on form and a focus on forms are equally effective” (p. 501). This finding is surprising, given that other researchers have suggested that Focus on Form (FonF) fosters L2 learning in comparison with the traditional Focus on FormS (FonFS) instruction.

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