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Since the culmination of SARS in 2003, the world has been awakened to the surreptitious and often fatal reality of viral emergence on a global scale. The WHO, as the leading governing body in global public health, has recognized the need for heightened surveillance of emerging pathogens. The Nipah Encephalitis virus, a lethal zoonotic paramyxovirus, has been identified as a source of potential pandemic disease and thus a threat to the health security of the international community as a whole. An interdisciplinary, multi-lateral approach is needed to understand the changing nature of this deadly pathogen from a microbiological to societal level, and in concert, prepare for a possible public health emergency of international concern.