Causes, effects & mitigation of brain drain in Sub-Saharan Africa An annotated bibliography

Main Article Content

Tandy Ombogo


Brain drain occurs when skilled labor from developing countries (LDCs) migrate to developed countries (DCs) in search of better living standards, professional growth, political stability and security, etc. This annotated bibliography aims to explore the causes of the brain drain, its effects on sending countries and mitigation that has been taken by stakeholders to slow it down and help LDCs achieve socio-economic and development growth.  Publications cited are in the English language and were published between 2001 and 2022. The scope of this article is Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a region and includes country-specific highlights from SSA countries like Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Somali, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe; as well as regional blocks, such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC);  East, Central and Southern Africa.  Country-specific highlights are included because the brain drain was felt and handled differently within these countries and regions that this literature discusses. Peer reviewed journals, working papers and government sources are also discussed.

Author Biography

Tandy Ombogo, The Library of Congress

Library Acquisitions Specialist, The Library of Congress Office, Nairobi, Kenya

Article Details