In developing nations, 1.2 billion people suffer from a lack of a basic sanitation system and fecal sludge manage- ment challenges, despite many efforts to combat this issue. Fecal sludge is a mixture of waste, including human excreta, soil, and water. Human excreta contains a significant amount of nutrients that can be used in agricultural fertilizers. The use of human excreta in agricultural fertilizers would reduce the need for artificial fertilizers and improve human excreta disposal through the use of composting and vermicomposting toilet systems. In developing nations where soil conditions are poor and fresh water is unavailable, the use of human excreta in fertilizer can ameliorate two problems: low food productivity and lack of sanitation service. Among the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) established by the United Nations (UN), ensuring a sani- tation system for everyone addresses the Goal 6, securing food for everyone. Additionally, enhancing low food productivity addresses the second goal of the SDGs, improving low food productivity. Thus, more efficient use of human excreta can help achieve two SDGs at the same time.
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